Liquid Water Tetramer
by assistent professor Aris Kaksis
Department of Human Physiology and Biochemistry, Riga Stradin's University 2013

Water dose not containes free water molecules H2O no <= reverse reaction and
is highly structured  (H2O)4 in tetramers and  trimers (H2O)3.
At 20 centigrades in pure water ar 80% tetramers and 20% trimer agregates:

4 H2O (l)          =>    (H2O)4 (l)       80%
 free molecules   =>  tetramer liquid    +

3 H2O (l)          =>    (H2O)3 (l)       20%
  no                                                  __________
 free molecules   =>  trimer liquid     100%

Three hydrogen bond formation acumulates free energy energy ?G= -90 kJ/mol and make structure stabile.

Each hydrogen bond yeald free energy change -30 kJ/mol:


bent Display:  H2O-H2O-H2O-H2O Distances (length in Å units) H-O bent 104.5o   O1-O11
Rotate: 30° about X Y Z

Distances (length in units) H-O
bent 104.5o   O1-O11
Rotate: 30 about X Y Z


ISIS DRAW transfere grafic file (.TGF) ilustrates Liquid Water Tetramer Agregate Structure

using distances for H-O bond 0.98 Angstrems , O1-O4  7.08 Angstrems , angles for H-O-H bent 104.7 degree in water molecule,

hydrogen bond distance 1.6 Angstrems O-H---O and free energy change  for one bond ΔG= -30 kJ/mol .

Water molecule dipole rises of oxygen particular charg -0.8 at oxygen atom and of perticularly naked hydrogen atom proton mede charge +0.4.


ISIS DRAW transfere grafic file (.TGF) H2O-H2O-H2O-H2O.tgf  ilustration.

Start investigation of tetramer (H2O)4 in MDL window using the mouse right button Select from
Mouse Click Action: Identification, Distance, Angle and many other options.

Good Luck and succesfull studies of tetramer (H2O)4!